The Greek Legislation on Transgender People’s Rights and the Educational Processes of the Youth’s Socializing towards Gender-related Identity Choices

Main Article Content

Kalerante Evaggelia

Abstract

This study is concerned with political discourse development on transgender people’s rights in Greece in terms of intentions and legislation, directly correlated with the education policy and educational act. Focus is placed on the period 2017-2019 in order to analyse political symbolic discourse constructions about transgender people’s rights. To this end, political texts, interventions by the Ministry of Education, Institute for Education Policy (IEP) and pressure groups are the focal point of this study. Based on discourse analysis, we delve into meanings conducive to forming narratives on gender as well as the biological, social and sexual identity. Educational practices, in particular, are utilized to analyse issues of applied gender-related education policies in Secondary education. The policy of intentions along with the legislation is deconstructed into interpretative conceptualisations on gender as well as educational practices defined by the value system. Distinctive features of the Greek culture regarding the identities of the “other (male) and the “other” (female) in terms of gender are also taken into consideration. As far as the education system is concerned, the role of the Christian orthodox religion is highlighted in relation to developing curricula and the overall school operation. More special issues on equality, inequality, solidarity and citizenship are re-defined, putting forward the apparatus for constructing discourse on inequality and the legalized marginalization of one more group of “others”. The implemented education policy is particularly interesting because every time a political ideological section on the policy of rights is discredited, every procedure of adapting social upgrading is downplayed; and this issue does not concern solely the policy of transgender people’s rights. Despite the existing law on transgender people’s rights, which is in line with the European Union and international organisations’ decision, this study reveals that Greek males and females are not socialized within educational institutes in order to accept the “other” (male) or the “other” (female) in terms of gender. Selective educational interventions are accomplished by IEP, as the transgender issue is included in a broader thematic on sexual identity. Thus, the question whether education can contribute to a new narrative on transgender people’s rights is still pending.

Keywords:
Christian orthodox religion, Greek culture, Greek legislation, educational practices, rights, transgender people.

Article Details

How to Cite
Evaggelia, K. (2020). The Greek Legislation on Transgender People’s Rights and the Educational Processes of the Youth’s Socializing towards Gender-related Identity Choices. Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 2(4), 1-11. Retrieved from http://journalajl2c.com/index.php/AJL2C/article/view/30109
Section
Review Article

References

EU LGBT Survey - European Union Lesbian, Gay, /Bisexual and Transgender Survey. FRA; 2013.
(Accessed 7 November 2017)
Available:https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd
=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjlg5D6xd7X AhUEOJoKHaDBB6cQFggqMA
A&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffra.europa.eu%2Fen%2F publication%2F2013%2Feu-lgbt
-survey-european-union-lesbian-gay-bisexualand- transgender-survey-results&u
sg=AOvVaw32V0bQVo43dsjf6Zo2GuMi

Protection against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and
Sex Characteristics in the EU. FRA; 2015.
(Accessed 7 November 2017)
Available:https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=r
ja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjYqr6Wxt7XA
hXoDpoKHUsSB10QFggtMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffra.europa.eu%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2
Ffiles%2Ffra_uploads%2Fprotection_against_discrimination_legal_update_2015.pdf&usg
=AOvVaw36z7CeEPwvMT1hWdEgIH_P

Professionally Speaking: Challenges to Achieving Equality for LGBT People. FRA; 2016.
(Accessed 28 November 2017)
Available:fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/fra-2016-lgbt-public-officials_en.pdf

General Secretariat for Transparency and Human Rights. Ηuman Rights Νational Αction Plan 20
14–2020. Hellenic Ministry of Justice; 2014.
(Accessed 21 November 2017)
Available:https://www.coe.int/t/commissioner/source/NAP/Greece-National-Action-Plan-on-Human-Rights.pdf

Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Gender Expression in Greece. Colour Youth Athens; 2014.
(Accessed 7 November 2017)
Available:https://www.ilga-europe.org/.../discrimination_on_the_grounds_of_sogie_greece.pdf

Legal Study on Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Ide
ntity. Centre for European Constitutional Law – CECL; 2010.
(Accessed 17 November 2017)
Available:fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra.../1352-LGBT-2010_thematic-study_EL.pdf

GREECE: The Status of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights. Submission to the United
Nations Human Rights Council for Its Universal Periodic Review of Greece (11th Session). Lesbian
and Gay Community of Greece – OLKE; 2010.
(Accessed 17 November 2017)
Available:http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session11/GR/OLKE_Lesbianand
GayCommunityofGreece-eng.pdf

The Global Divide on Homosexuality. Pew Research Center. 2013;1.
(Accessed 7 November 2017)
Available:http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-globaldivide Platform

“Live without Bullying”. KMOP; 2016.
(Accessed 24 November 2017)
Available:https://livewithoutbullying.com/

Theofilopoulos Th. Homophobic, transphobic violence and discriminations in Greece: A Report of
the Project Results “Say it to us” 01/04/2014 - 30/11/2015; 2016.

(Accessed 9 November 2017)

Available:http://colouryouth.gr/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Ekthesi-Ergou-Pes-to-S-emas.pdf

Discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual
orientation and gender identity. United Nations Human Rights Council; 2011.
(Accessed 21 November 2017)
Available:http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Discrimination/A.HRC.19.41_English.pdf

Tzamalouka G. Social representations of homosexuality in contemporary Greece. In: Papazisi Th,
Chatzitryfon N, Ktenidis Th. Editors. Gender and its behavior: Homosexuality – Homophobia.
Proceedings of the 1st Interdisciplinary Meeting on Homosexuality and Homophobia “The Situation
in Greece and Perspectives for Its Improvement”, 9-10 October, Thessaloniki. Athens: Epikentro. 2000;99-118.

Jacques J, Heti S. Trans: A Memoir. London: Verso; 2016.

Barket MJ, Scheele J. Queer: A graphic history. London: Icon Books; 2016.

Aiden H, Marston K, Rerry T. Homophobic bullying – How well we understand the problem? Bristol:
Educational Action Challenging Homophobia; 2013.

Halberstam J. In a queer time and place: Transgender bodies, subcultural lives. New York: New York Press; 2005.

Halberstam J. Trans: A quick and quirky account of gender variability. California: University of California Press; 2017.

Hall D. The Routledge Queer Studies Reader. London: Routledge; 2012.

Hakeem A. TRANS: Exploring gender identity and gender dysphoria. Great Britain: Trigger Press; 2018.

Weeks J. The language of sexuality. London: Routledge; 2011.

Giannakopoulos K, Editor. Sexuality. Athens: Alexandreia; 2006.

Apostolleli A, Chalkia Al, Editors. Bodies, gender, sexuality. Athens: Plethron; 2012.

Diamond L. Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. New York: Harvard University Press; 2009.

Rivers I. Homophobic bullying: Research and theoretical perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011.

Sayer J, Kazelleova J, Martin D. Developing schools for democracy in Europe: An example of Trans-European
Cooperation in Education. United Kingdom: Symposium Books; 1995.

Stychin C. A nation by rights: National cultures, sexual identity politics, and the discourse of rights. USA: Temple University Press; 1998.

Transgender Europe. World Health Organisation moves to end classifying trans identities as mental illness; 2018.
(Accessed 12 November 2019)
Available:https://tgeu.org/world-health-organisation-moves-to-end-classifying-trans-identities-as-mental-illness/

Foucault M. The history of sexuality. New York: Vintage; 1990.

Halberstam J. In a queer time and place: Transgender bodies, subcultural lives (3). New York: New York University Press; 2012.

Auer MK, Fuss J, Höhne N, Stella GK, Sievers C. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation. PLosOne. 2014;9(10):e110016.

deVries KM. Transgender people of color at the center: Conceptualizing a new intersectional model. Ethnicities. 2015; 15(1):3-27.

Butler J. Βodies that matter. London: Routledge; 2011.

Brubaker R. Trans: Gender and race in an age of unsettled identities. USA: Princeton University Press; 2016.

Cadwell C, Leighton LB. Oppression and the body: Roots, resistance, and resolutions. USA: North Atlantic Books; 2018.

Gerouki M. The boy who was drawing princesses: Primary teachers’ accounts of children’s non-conforming
behaviours’. Sex Education. 2010;10(4):335-348.

Nicolazzo Z. What’s transgressive about trans studies in education now? London: Routledge; 2018.

Richardson D, McLaughlin J. Intersections between feminist and queer theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2012.

Ketting E, Ivanova O. Sexuality education in Europe and Central Asia. Assessment Report by the Federal
Centre for Health Education and the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network- IPPF EN. Cologne; 2018.

Record nr. 44/0-11-2016 and Circular to High Schools across the Country with Register nr. F20.1/220482/D2. IEP; 2016.

Pateraki M, Orfanidou F, Skiba A. Research on the experience of educators of the implementation of topic “Gender Identities” in the school years 2016-2017. Rainbow School; 2018.
(Accessed 20 November 2017)
Available:http://rainbowschool.gr/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/%CE%88%CF%81%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%BD%CE%B1-%CE%88%CE%BC%CF%86%CF%85%CE%BB%CE%B5%CF%82-%CE%A4%CE%B1%CF%85%CF%84%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%84%-CE%B5%CF%82%CE%A0%CE%BF%CE%BB%CF%8D%CF%87%CF%81%CF%89%CE%BC%CE%BF-%CE%A3%CF%87%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%BF-20172018.pdf

Galanou M. Identity and gender expression. Giannakopoulos K, Editor. Athens: Association for Supporting the Transgenders; 2014.

Ministry of Education. Implementation in Secondary Schools of the Thematic Week of Information and Awareness in Nutrition, Addiction-Gender and Gender Issues in the School Year 2016-2017. Ministry of Education Newsletter; 2016.
(Accessed 23 November 2017)
Available:http://www.minedu.gov.gr/publications/docs2016/thematiki_week.pdf

Orlando. Mental health without stigma.
(Accessed 25 November 2017)
Available:https://orlandolgbt.gr

OKANA. Gender discriminations, gender identity and sexuality; 2019.
(Accessed 10 November 2019)
Available:https://rainbowschool.gr/2019/06/13/okana-emfyles-diakriseis/

Beck B. Trans/forming leaders in education: Stories of transgender persons. USA: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2014.

Ioannou Ch. Combating homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools. National Report: Greece. The European Union’s Rights, Equality and Citizenship Programme (2014-2020); 2016.

Kjaran J. Constructing sexualities and gendered bodies in school spaces: Nordic insights on queer and transgender students. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2017.

Miller S. Teaching, affirming, and recognizing trans and gender creative youth: A queer literacy framework. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2016.

Nicolazzo Z, Renn K. Trans in college: Transgender students' strategies for navigating campus life and the institutional politics of inclusion. USA: Stylus Publishing; 2016.

Worldmap on Implementation of the Right to Education for DESPOGI/LGBTI Students. Global Alliance for LGBT Education – GALE; 2015.
(Accessed 7 November 2017)
Available:https://www.gale.info/doc/gale-products/GALE-Worldmap2015.pdf

Tauches K. Transgendering. Challenging the “normal”. In: Seidman S, Fischer N, Meeks C, Editors. Introducing the New Sexual Studies. London: Routledge; 2011.

Travers A. The trans generation: How trans kids (and Their Parents) are creating a gender revolution. New York: New York Press; 2018.

Institute for Education Policy (IEP). Brief Evaluation of the Thematic Week 2018 – 2019; 2019.
(Accessed 10 November 2019)
Available:http://www.iep.edu.gr/images/IEP/EPISTIMONIKI_YPIRESIA/Epist_Grafeia/Graf_Ereynas_A/Thematiki_Evdomada_2018-2019/2019-09-09_Parartima_Apotimissi_Thematikis_Evdomadas_2018-2019.pdf

Index of Inclusion of LGBTQI Individuals in Education. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer & Intersex Youth and Student Organisation – IGLYO. Translation in Greeκ by Rainbow School; 2017.
(Accessed 27 November 2017)
Available:http://rainbowschool.gr/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IGLYO-Index-final.pdf

Putting a stop to homophobic bullying: A year of action. UNESCO; 2012b.
(Accessed 22 November 2017)
Available:http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/putting_a_stop_to_homophobic_bullying_a_year_of_action/#.UyAt-8JWHIU

Research Centre for Gender Equality (KETHI). Prevention and Fight against sexism and discrimination on gender identity issues; 2016.
(Accessed 7 November 2017)
Available:https://kethi.gr/program/%CF%80%CF%81%CF%8C%CE%BB%CE%B7%CF%88%CE%B7-%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%B9-%CE%BA%CE%B1%CF%84%C%B1%CF%80%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%AD%CE%BC%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%B7-%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85-%CF%83%CE%B5%CE%BE%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%BC%CE