Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Religion and Spirituality on Literature: A Systematic Review

Mojtaba Rezaei Sani, Fariba Sadreddini

Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Page 1-8

The influence of religion on literature has been debated for more than a decade, and yet, there remains a lack of consensus about the nature of this relationship. In an effort to bring some clarity to this area, this study assesses the role of religion and religious faith in literature by using a methodological approach to reviewing a body of literature that is new to the social sciences—the systematic review (SR).The discussion of literature and religion is a wide-range topic, and the entrance perspective into this argument, in turn, is controversial. It has been prevalent in writings revolving around literature and religion to study the impact of religion on literature, and accordingly literature has been considered as a means of transferring religious issues.

But the influence of religion on literature is an interesting and delicate debate. Literature in a superficial division can be examined at three levels of religious literature, secular literature, and implicit literature. In the Encyclopedia of Iliad which is considered a religious encyclopedia, Antonio Cua believes that the right justification for classifying literature in religious studies is a historical justification. Because in all high-cultural systems, the literary relation has grown in close relation with ideas, institutions, practices, and religious institutions; so according to Antonio Cua, , the 25,00-year-old European literature without considering Greek myths , Hebrew precepts and Christian institutions is not cognizable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Knowledge Management in Selected Commercial Banks in Kandy District

Lourdes Dilakshini Victor, Faizal Antanat Shamila

Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Page 1-7

The purpose of this study is to explain and empirically test the impact of Human Resource Management Practices (HRM) on Knowledge Management (KM) in the selected commercial banks in Kandy District. It concentrated on HRM practices related to Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal, Compensation and Reward and Employee Empowerment.

In order to achieve this primary aim, data were collected through open ended questionnaires from 196 employees in 12 Licensed Commercial Banks (LCBs) branches in Kandy District. Hence, quantitative research approach was used in this study. The research method was descriptive correlative type and it was based on the objective of the method applied. The stratified sampling method was used to make the sampling frame work of the study. The data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analysis to take the descriptive and inferential statistics.

The results indicated that, the levels of HRM practices and KM exist in selected commercial banks in Kandy District were high level and the Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Employee Empowerment practices had significant positive impact on KM while Compensation and Reward practices had not significant positive impact on KM. The findings of the study provided several important implications for managers and decision makers of the banks. Little empirical research has explicitly examined the relationship between HRM practices and each of the KM processes. Accordingly, the study was contributed to the body of knowledge by filling the gaps in the management literature and by substantiating the findings of previous research while the study generates considerable theoretical and practical contributions.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Corpus and a Collocation Framework in the Comparison of the English Tests of Two Major College Entrance Examinations in Taiwan

Maosheng Hung, Yi-Hsien Chin

Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Page 1-11

Aims and Study Design: This study primarily investigated the English tests of two major college entrance examinations in Taiwan (i.e., the General Scholastic Ability Test and the Advanced Subjects Test) in terms of collocations via the use of corpus and a collocation framework proposed by Benson, Benson, and Ilson [3,8].

Methodology: Two corpora based on the GSAT and the AST (from 2002 to 2011) were built for analysis.

Results and Conclusion: The results obtained through a program called AntConc demonstrated the following similarities. In relation to the most frequent lexical collocations derived from the content words that were among the 200 most frequently used words in both exams, is not (L7) ranked the 1st, and L3 was the most frequently occurring pattern among the seven types put forward by Benson et al. [3,8]. As for the most frequent grammatical collocations generalized from the same content words in the two tests, according to (G5) and such as (G5) were among the top three.

Open Access Original Research Article

From Extolling History to Celebrating Folk Customs: Narrative Transformation and the Use of Film Scores in the Third World Film Red Sorghum

Hui-Ya Lin

Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Page 1-5

“From Extolling History to Celebrating Folk Customs: Narrative Transformation and the Use of Film Scores in the Third World Film Red Sorghum,” adopts a Third World feminist perspective to investigate changes in the narrative patterns used in the original novel and the film with the same title adapted from the novel. In addition, this study explores the purpose of such changes and how film scores are used in the film to enhance desired effects. By introducing the historical context of the novel, this study intends to explain how the features of these film scores influence the film. Furthermore, how film scores are employed to present the characters’ personalities and increase the weight and affect of crucial events in the film is investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Norms Reflected in Japanese Kenashi (Blaming)

Hironori Sekizaki

Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Page 1-16

Aims and Study Design: The study aims to contribute to the construction of a society which accepts diversity. In an attempt to clarify “social norms,” this study specifies factors which influence the tendency to use kenashi (blaming). This study employed survey design where undergraduate students were asked to complete a 20-item questionnaire consisting of kenashi made to close friends.

Place and Duration of Study: The investigation was conducted at universities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area. The duration of the survey period was from January to May 2012.

Methodology: The effective sample of this research is 190: 103 males and 87 females. The data were examined by explanatory factor analysis, and its construct validity was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis.

Results and Conclusion: Three factors, named "uniqueness and environment of evaluatee from an external cause," "lack of sense,” and “lack of social accommodation,” were extracted through EFA, and verified as having acceptable construct validity through CFA. The author discusses the "lack of social accommodation" as being seen as a deviation from the norm. This factor had the highest mean among three factors, and its validity is also indicated by previous studies. It is also discussed that faults resulting from irresistible force or lack of sense are not likely to invoke kenashi.