India's Data Localization Journey: Privacy, Security, and Beyond

Anant Kumar Anand

Department of BBA LLB, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India.

Sujata Kumari

Department of BBA LLB, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India.

Anurag Sinha *

Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, IGNOU, India.

Anita Kumari

Department of English and DSW, RKDF University, Ranchi, India.

Rejuwan Shamim

Department of Computer Science and Engineering with Data Science, Maharishi University of Information Technology, Noida, India.

Vishal Gupta

Department of CSE, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Data localization has become a hot topic in India in recent years. The Indian government has been taking steps to mandate the storage of certain types of data within India's borders, citing concerns about privacy, security, and sovereignty. However, this move has also raised concerns about increased costs, reduced efficiency, and potential barriers to trade. This article provides a comprehensive overview of data localization in India, examining the concept from all angles. We have discussed the reasons behind the government's push for data localization and the types of data that are affected. We also explored the impact of data localization on various industries, including technology, finance, and e-commerce. Additionally, we analyzed the legal and regulatory framework surrounding data localization in India, including the relevant laws and guidelines, as well as the implications for businesses operating in India. Finally, we have considered the international perspective, looking at how data localization fits into the global data governance landscape and the potential impact on India's relationships with other countries. Overall, this article aims to provide a 360-degree view of data localization in India, helping readers to understand the motivations, challenges, and implications of this contentious issue. The article explores the concept of data localization and its impact on data flow and privacy protection. It provides a comprehensive review of the issues faced by India in terms of data protection and localization, including the impact on emerging technologies such as cloud computing, E-commerce, big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and the internet of things. The article also discusses the legal and regulatory framework surrounding data localization in India and compares it to other nations. It suggests that India should develop policy initiatives to encourage transparent and clear international standards on data security, as well as enabling higher levels of digital innovation in developing countries. The article presents a balanced view of the pros and cons of data localization and provides recommendations for addressing the issue.

Keywords: Data localization, jurisdiction, artificial intelligence, data privacy

How to Cite

Anand , A. K., Kumari, S., Sinha , A., Kumari, A., Shamim , R., & Gupta , V. (2023). India’s Data Localization Journey: Privacy, Security, and Beyond. Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, 6(3), 256–271. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India, 10SCC1; 2017.

Dominos Data Breach: name, address, other details of 18 crore orders leaked, The Indian Express (May 31, 2021) of over 18 over orders leaked. Available:

Saurabh Sinha, All India hit by massive data breach, flyer data compromised, The Times of India (may22.2021,11.24). Available:

Tanvi Mehta, Arunima Kumar, Air India says February Data breach affected 4.5 Mln Passenger, Reuters (May.21,2021, 11:43PM). Available:

Rishabh Sinha, What’s in for Data Localization in India, (September 11, 2019).


Indian E-commerce Industry Analysis, India Brand Equity Foundation (May 25, 2021).


Henry Campbell Black, Definitions of term and phrases of American and English Jurisprudence, Ancient and Modern, Black Law Dictionary; 1968. Available:

Nicholas confessore, Cambridge Analytica and Facebook: The scandal and the fallout sofar, the New York Times (April 4, 2018). Available:

Draft National E-Commerce policy stakeholder comments, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade. Available:

Flaig D, Lopez Gonzalez J, Messent J, Jouanjean MA. Modelling data localisation measures; 2016.

Duranton G, Overman HG. Testing for localization using micro-geographic data. The Review of Economic Studies. 2005;72(4):1077-1106.

Sargsyan T. Advancing political and economic interests through data localization in the name of privacy and security. AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research; 2015.

Mosher JC, Lewis PS, Leahy RM. Multiple dipole modeling and localization from spatio-temporal MEG data. IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering. 1992;39(6):541-557.

Baddeley D, Cannell MB, Soeller C. Visualization of localization microscopy data. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2010; 16(1):64-72.

Taylor RD. Data localization”: The internet in the balance. Telecommunications Policy. 2020;44(8):102003.

Mishra N. Data localization laws in a digital world: Data protection or data protectionism?. The Public Sphere (2016), NUS Centre for International Law Research Paper, (19/05); 2015.

Hon WK. Data localization laws and policy: the EU data protection international transfers restriction through a cloud computing lens. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017.

Hill J. The growth of data localization post-snowden: Analysis and recommendations for us policymakers and business leaders. In The Hague Institute for Global Justice, Conference on the Future of Cyber Governance; 2014.

Chander A. Is Data Localization a Solution for Schrems II?. Journal of International Economic Law. 2020;23(3):771-784.

Savelyev A. Russia's new personal data localization regulations: A step forward or a self-imposed sanction?. Computer law & security review. 2016;32(1):128-145.

Inđić V, Kovačević M, Simić M, Sladić G. Towards Local Cloud Infrastructure in Developing Countries as a Response to Data Localization Regulations; 2022.

Kugler K. The impact of data localisation laws on trade in Africa. Policy Brief. 2022;8.

Vittala P. Impact of Data Localisation on the GDP of Selected Economies. Journal of Commerce & Accounting Research. 2022;11(4).

Rahman MN, Rahman N. Exploring digital trade provisions in Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) in times of crisis: India and Asia-Pacific countries. Asia and the Global Economy. 2022;2(2): 100036.

Nair NV, Shaikh AU. Privacy and Data Protection Laws: An Overview. IUP Law Review. 2022;12(2).

Gaur L. Evolution of Cyber Laws in India. Jus Corpus LJ. 2022;3:670.

Belli L, Doneda D. Data protection in the BRICS countries: legal interoperability through innovative practices and convergence. International Data Privacy Law. 2023;13(1):1-24.

Joel A, Pervaiz S. Data Localization and Government Access to Data Stored Abroad: Discussion Paper 2; 2023.

Kumar S. Cyber Crime Vis-A-Vis Data Privacy: Doctrinal Investigation. Galaxy International Interdisciplinary Research Journal. 2022;10(2):167-176.

Kuppala J, Srinivas KK, Anudeep P, Kumar RS, Vardhini PH. Benefits of Artificial Intelligence in the Legal System and Law Enforcement. In 2022 International Mobile and Embedded Technology Conference (MECON). IEEE. 2022;221-225.